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四种自由

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2005年8月30日

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1941年1月6日,罗斯福总统在致第77届美国国会的国情咨文中提出,未来的世界必须建立在四种自由的基础上。

1.言论自由。

2.宗教信仰自由。

3.免于匮乏的自由。

4.免于恐惧的自由。

我相信,这是任何正常的人类社会存在的基础。一个国家的公民没有这四种自由,这个国家就不算一个好国家。

只把人权理解为生存权是不够的,生而为人就必须有这四种自由。否则,生存也是低质量和没有保障的。

这四种自由应该是社会发展的目标。

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Franklin Roosevelt, State of the Union Address, 1941:

In the future days which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.

The first is freedom of speech and expression --everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way -- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants--everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear, which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor -- anywhere in the world.

That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called "new order" of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb. To that new order we oppose the greater conception --the moral order. A good society is able to face schemes of world domination and foreign revolutions alike without fear. Since the beginning of our American history we have been engaged in change, in a perpetual, peaceful revolution, a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly, adjusting itself to changing conditions without the concentration camp or the quicklime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society.

(完)

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