《纽约时报》:北京的奥运蓝天任务

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2008年1月13日

珠峰培训

(提示:在阅读本文前,请先阅读《世界上最脏的城市》。)

去年8月底开始,《纽约时报》对中国的环境污染做了一组系列报道,题目为《死于经济增长》(Choking on Growth)。

这组报道一共十篇,我已经转载过两篇,分别是《中国的污染已经到了极限》《中国成为世界烟囱》

去年12月28日,《纽约时报》刊登了系列报道的最后一篇,《北京的奥运蓝天任务》(Beijing's Olympic Quest: Turn Smoggy Sky Blue),报道了北京可怕的空气质量。

两个星期过去了,我发现中文网站上,似乎没有人提到这件事。这么好的文章,要是没人知道,就太可惜了,何况我们每个人都深受空气污染之害,不能再忽视这个问题了。

所以,我将它全文翻译了出来,让更多的人看到。

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图片一

2007年12月25日,由于空气质量恶劣,北京市政府发出警报,要求居民待在室内。但是人们已经习惯了呼吸脏空气,图为一个男子当天在天安门广场放风筝。

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图片二

北京市的无数建筑工地是空气污染主要来源之一。图为2008年奥运会的主场馆----俗称"鸟巢"的国家体育场。

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图片三

北京每天新增1200多辆小汽车和卡车。图为去年12月的一天早上,北京西区上班高峰时间的景象。

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图片四

据一位北京的呼吸科医生说,他现在每天治疗50个呼吸疾病患者,是十年前的一倍。哮喘患者和不吸烟的肺癌患者,都比以前大量增加。

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Beijing's Olympic Quest: Turn Smoggy Sky Blue

北京的奥运蓝天任务

原载2007年12月29日《纽约时报》

作者:JIM YARDLEY

译者:阮一峰


BEIJING -- Every day, monitoring stations across the city measure air pollution to determine if the skies above this national capital can officially be designated blue. It is not an act of whimsy: with Beijing preparing to play host to the 2008 Olympic Games, the official Blue Sky ratings are the city's own measuring stick for how well it is cleaning up its polluted air.

北京 ---- 每天,全市各处的监测点都会测量空气污染,然后决定首都上方的天空是否符合官方定义的"蓝天"。这并非奇特的举动,自从北京开始准备主办2008年奥运会,政府就决定用蓝天的天数,作为衡量空气污染的一个指标。

Thursday did not bring good news. The gray, acrid skies rated an eye-reddening 421 on a scale of 500, with 500 being the worst. Friday rated 500. Both days far exceeded pollution levels deemed safe by the World Health Organization. In Beijing, officials warned residents to stay indoors until Saturday, but residents here are accustomed to breathing foul air. One man flew a kite in Tiananmen Square.

星期四的情况不太好。天空是灰色的,空气中布满尘埃,足以引发结膜炎,空气污染数值达到421。这个数值的最大值是500,代表最差的状况。星期五的测量结果就是500。这两天的空气状况,远远超过了世界卫生组织定义的安全空气水平。政府发布了警报,要求市民在星期六之前,都待在室内。但是,本地居民都已经习惯了呼吸脏空气。当天在天安门广场上,还有人放风筝。

For Beijing officials, Thursday was especially depressing because the city was hoping to celebrate an environmental victory. In recent years, Beijing has steadily increased its Blue Sky days. The city needs one more, defined as scoring below 101, to reach its goal of 245 Blue Sky days this year. These improving ratings are how Beijing hopes to reassure the world that Olympic athletes will not be gasping for breath next August.

对北京市的官员来说,星期四特别让人沮丧,因为本来这一天可以庆祝城市环境的改善。近几年,北京市蓝天天数一直在稳定增长。这个城市只需要再增加一天,空气污染指数低于101,就可以达到今年245个蓝天的指标。北京希望用不断增加的蓝天天数,向世界保证,明年8月的奥运会上,运动员不会感到有呼吸问题。

"We're definitely hoping for the best," said Jon Kolb, a member of the Canadian Olympic Committee, "but preparing for the worst."

"我们当然希望出现最好的结果,"加拿大奥委会委员Jon Kolb说,"但是对最坏的结果也有思想准备。"

For the world's Olympians, Beijing's air is a performance issue. The concern is that respiratory problems could impede athletic performance and prevent records from being broken. For the city's estimated 12 million residents, pollution is an inescapable health and quality-of-life issue. Skepticism about the validity of the Blue Sky ratings is common. Moreover, the concern is whether the city can clean itself up long after the Games are over.

对于参加奥运会的运动员来说,北京的空气会影响成绩。呼吸不顺畅,使得成绩下降,无法破记录。但是,对于这个城市大约1200万的居民来说,污染是一个无所不在的问题,直接影响健康和生活质量。人们普遍怀疑,官方宣布的蓝天增加不可靠。而且,人们更关心的是,当奥运会结束以后,这个城市是否还会继续变干净。

Beijing has long ranked as one of the world's most polluted cities. To win the Games, Beijing promised a "Green Olympics" and undertook environmental initiatives now considered models for the rest of the country. But greening Beijing has not meant slowing it down. Officials also have encouraged an astonishing urbanization boom that has made environmental gains seem modest, if not illusory.

长久以来,北京一直被列为世界上污染最重的城市之一。为了赢得奥运会主办权,北京承诺举办一次"绿色奥运",保证采取大量堪称世界楷模的环保措施。但是,治理污染不等于放慢经济发展。政府一直在鼓励城市经济以令人震惊的速度扩张。这使得环境的改善显得微乎其微,甚至堪称幻觉。

Beijing is like an athlete trying to get into shape by walking on a treadmill yet eating double cheeseburgers at the same time. Polluting factories have been moved or closed. But auto emissions are rising as the city adds up to 1,200 new cars and trucks every day. Dirty, coal-burning furnaces have been replaced, lowering the city's sulfur dioxide emissions. But fine-particle pollution has been exacerbated by a staggering citywide construction binge that shows no signs of letting up.

北京就像一个运动员,一边在跑步机上跑步,保持形体,一边却大口吃着双份汉堡。高污染工厂已经被迁移或者关闭。但是,汽车尾气却在上升,因为这个城市每天新增1200辆小轿车和卡车。燃煤的高炉已经被搬走,二氧化硫排放下降了。但是,空气中的微粒污染却更严重了,因为全市各处都是正在施工的建筑工地,没有丝毫放慢施工的迹象。

China's unsolved riddle is how to reconcile fast economic growth with environmental protection. But Beijing's Olympic deadline means the city needs an immediate answer. The ruling Communist Party envisions the Games as a public relations showcase and is leaving no detail untended. Scientists are cross-breeding chrysanthemums to ensure that flowers bloom in August.

中国始终没有解决的一个问题,就是如何将快速的经济增长与环境保护协调起来。但是,北京奥运会的日益临近,意味着北京需要一个立竿见影的方法。共产党将这次奥运会视为一个展示形象的窗口,所有细节都考虑到了。科学家正在培育杂交菊花,保证会在8月开花。

Now Beijing is also going to try to manipulate air quality. For months, scientists have treated the city like a laboratory, testing wind patterns and atmospheric structure, while pinpointing local and regional pollution sources. Olympics contingency plans have been approved for Beijing and surrounding provinces. Details are not public, but officials have discussed shutting down factories and restricting traffic during the Games.

现在,北京正在尝试对空气质量加以控制。一连好几个月,科学家将整个城市当作实验室,测试风的形态和大气结构,查明市内和市外的各种污染源。北京市和周边省份都批准了奥运会紧急状况的应对方案。具体细节不得而知,但是官员们考虑在奥运会期间,关闭工厂和限制交通。

"We are determined to ensure that the air conditions meet the necessary standards in August 2008," Liu Qi, president of the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games, told the International Olympic Committee's executive board this month.

"我们下定决心,保证2008年8月的空气质量达到标准,"奥运会组委会主席刘淇,本月对国际奥委会的成员说。

Beijing residents overwhelmingly support the Games and take for granted that officials will do what is necessary to ensure clean air. Last August, the city removed a million cars from roads during a four-day test intended to gauge pollution and traffic. But people also know that any emergency measures have a limited shelf life.

北京市民极其支持奥运会,认为为了保证干净的空气,政府理应采取一切必要的措施。去年八月,北京市在4天的测试期中,限制100万辆小汽车开上马路,以便测试对空气污染和交通状况的影响。但是,人们很清楚,所有这些临时性措施都不可能长期有效。

"Yes, I heard about it," said an engineer at one factory that may temporarily be shut down. He refused to identify himself because he was criticizing government policy. "It is like you invite some guests to your home, and hide all your children underneath the bed to make the house look nicer. If all the polluting factories are shut down for the Olympics, there will be a major pollution outbreak afterward when all the factories restart, right?"

"对,我听说了,"一位工程师说,他所在的工厂可能会在奥运会期间暂时关闭。他拒绝透露身份,但是他批评了这种政策。"这好比你在家里请客,却把小孩都藏在床底下,让屋子看上去更整洁。如果高污染工厂在奥运会期间都关闭了,那么当这些工厂重开的时候,污染会一下子爆发,对不对?"

Beijing officials say the Olympics will have a lasting and positive environmental legacy on the city. International Olympic Committee officials acknowledge that air quality remains a problem, but they say the air would be far worse without improvements made for the Games. "The general trend is improvement," said Simon Balderstone, an environmental adviser for the I.O.C.

北京市政府认为,奥运会对北京市的环境会有长期的正面影响。国际奥委会官员承认,空气质量是一个难题,但是他们说,如果没有奥运会,北京的空气会糟糕得多。"总的趋势是在改善,"Simon Balderstone说,他是国际奥委会的环境顾问。

But pollution is expected to remain a major, long-term challenge as Beijing's population may eventually exceed 20 million people. Scientists also say the city will never be able to clean itself up if surrounding industrial provinces are not cleaned up, too.

但是,污染被认为会长期存在,并且随着北京市人口逐渐超过2000万,而成为一个首要的问题。科学家还说,如果周边省份不控制污染,那么北京只靠自己永远也无法变干净。

Blue skies, in other words, will remain a challenge.

换句话说,蓝天将依然是一种挑战。

Growth Offsets Gains

经济增长抵消环境治理

In July 2001, Beijing won the right to serve as the host of the 2008 Games, a victory that carried a touch of vindication. Eight years earlier, the International Olympic Committee had rejected Beijing's first bid for a variety of reasons, including the city's polluted environment.

2001年7月,北京获得了2008年奥运会主办权,这个胜利带着一点补偿的性质。8年前,国际奥委会拒绝了北京申办2000年奥运会的第一次请求,理由有许多,其中有一条就是北京的污染。

This time, Beijing organizers promised a "Green Olympics."

这一次,北京的组织者承诺举办一次"绿色奥运会"。

"Beijing has come a long way since its last bid in 1993," said Wang Wei, a senior Beijing Olympics official, speaking at the city's final Olympic presentation in Moscow in 2001. "The city has taken giant steps to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth."

"自从1993年第一次提出申请,北京已经做了很多工作,"王伟(音译)谈到2001年北京的申办时这样说,他是北京奥组委的高级官员。"这个城市采取了巨大的努力,治理工业化和经济增长带来的污染。"

Beijing's environmental program had begun in 1997 and became the centerpiece of the city's Olympic environmental commitments. Urban sewage treatment has doubled since 2001. Use of natural gas has jumped 38-fold as city officials have converted thousands of dirty coal-fired furnaces and boilers. Factories have been shut down or relocated to the suburbs. Millions of trees have been planted.

北京的环境治理项目开始于1997年,后来成为了北京申办奥运会时环境承诺的中心环节。从2001年以来,城市污水处理率提高了一倍。天然气使用率猛升了38倍,原因是市政府将几千个燃煤的锅炉转为使用天然气。工厂被关闭,或者迁到郊区。几百万棵树木种植在城市中。

"For many years, the city had few environmental rules," said Mr. Balderstone, the I.O.C. environmental adviser, who regularly consults with Beijing officials. "It's like they are playing catch-up on a lot of these measures."

"许多年来,这个城市对环境几乎不加以管理,"Balderstone先生说,他是国际奥委会的环境顾问,定期与北京市官员讨论环境问题。"他们现在所做的更像是补救。"

But Beijing's Olympic bid also intensified a stunning urban boom. Since 2000, Beijing's gross domestic product has jumped 144 percent, according to Beijing Olympic officials. New office buildings and apartment towers seem to rise every week. More than 1.7 billion square feet of new construction has been started since 2002, most of it unrelated to the Olympics.

但是,与此同时,北京举办奥运会也急剧刺激了城市的快速繁荣。根据北京奥组委的数据,从2000年以来,北京的国内生产总值GDP增加了144%。新的写字楼和公寓大楼每个星期都在拔地而起。从2002年以来,建筑面积新增17亿平方英尺,其中大部分与奥运会无关。

Cleaner Coal, but More of It

使用更多的煤

The emerging cityscape is often dazzling, but also energy intensive and polluting. Beijing now requires factories and power plants to burn cleaner, low-sulfur coal, but it had also hoped to reduce overall coal consumption in the years before the Olympics. Instead, the city's coal consumption peaked at 30 million tons last year. Beijing also has only one office tower that qualifies under international and national energy efficiency standards as a green building. Construction, meanwhile, is expected to continue at a rapid pace.

日新月异的城市面貌常常令人眩目,但也意味着更多的能源消耗和污染。北京市现在要求工厂和电厂都使用较清洁的低硫煤,还希望在奥运会前,城市的煤炭消耗总量能够下降。但是,事实上,北京的煤炭使用量去年达到了3000万吨,创了历史新高。另外,北京现在只有一幢写字楼,符合国际标准的"绿色建筑"。同时,北京的建筑物预计还将以较快的速度增长。

"I think there will be another 20 to 30 years of urbanization," said Wu Weijia, a professor at Tsinghua University's Institute of Urban Studies. "The scale of construction in Beijing will not slow down after the Olympics."

"我想,北京的城市化还将持续20到30年,"吴蔚嘉(音译)说,他是清华大学城市研究所的教授。"北京的施工在奥运会后并不会放慢。"

Meanwhile, an explosion of car ownership has wrought gridlocked traffic and a halo of auto fumes. Beijing now has more than three million vehicles and is adding more than 400,000 new cars and trucks each year. The city's reliance on cars and trucks leaves its air with few reprieves. As in other Chinese cities, heavy trucks can only enter at night. Diesel exhaust is so severe that Beijing's levels of PM 2.5, a tiny particulate deemed potentially harmful to health, is highest between midnight and 3 a.m., according to one survey.

另一方面,北京的车辆正在爆炸式增长,不仅造成交通拥堵,还带来了大量的汽车尾气。北京现有300多万辆各种车辆,每年新增的小汽车和卡车超过40万辆。这些车辆使得空气污染一日胜过一日。和其他中国城市一样,重型卡车只能在晚上进城。根据一项调查,柴油发动机尾气造成的污染,使得北京的PM 2.5----一个衡量空气微粒含量的指标,数值越高对健康越有害----在午夜和凌晨三点之间达到最高值。

Beijing is fighting auto pollution by instituting China's highest vehicle emissions standards. Nearly 79,000 new taxis with lower emissions have replaced older, outdated models. But Beijing has been unwilling to discourage private car ownership by instituting exorbitant fees as Shanghai has done. Depending on the car, license plates in Shanghai can cost as much as $7,000; as a result, Shanghai adds about one-fourth as many cars per year as Beijing.

北京市为了治理汽车尾气污染,制订了中国最严格的尾气排放标准。大约7.9万辆污染更低的新式出租车,取代了老式的型号。但是,北京市不愿意像上海那样征收车牌费,控制私车增长量。上海的车牌费高达7000美元,结果使得上海每年新增的车辆只有北京的四分之一。

Beijing's problems are compounded because its public transportation system was neglected for years. Now, the city is expanding subway lines and finishing a rail line from the airport to downtown, but car ownership is expected to keep rising.

北京的问题是多方面原因造成的,多年来,北京的公共交通系统一直被忽视。现在,这个城市正在扩建地铁,以及一条从机场到市区的轻轨。但是,车辆的增长预计还会持续。

"If you discourage people from having a car, the public transportation system would be overburdened," said Mr. Wu, the Tsinghua professor.

"如果你阻止人们拥有车辆,北京的公共交通系统根本无法承受。"清华大学吴教授说。

Taking Pollution's Measure

污染测量有争议

Mr. Kolb, the Canadian Olympic official, spent much of August in Beijing trying to answer the question hanging over the city as the Games approach: Has air quality actually improved?

加拿大奥委会的Kolb先生,8月份的大部分时间都待在北京,试图找到答案。随着奥运会的临近,这个城市面临着一个问题:有办法改善空气质量吗?

An environmental physiologist, Mr. Kolb visited several stadiums, and sneaked into a few others, to measure pollution with a small monitoring device. On Aug. 5, his measurement of fine particles pollution, or PM 10, reached 200, roughly four times above the level deemed safe by the World Health Organization.

Kolb先生是一个环境生理学家,他查看了几个体育场,悄悄进入内部,用一个小型仪器测量污染。8月5日,他测得颗粒污染指标PM 10达到了200,大约是世界卫生组织认定的安全数值的4倍。

"We're worried," Mr. Kolb said. Of Beijing air pollution, he added: "There's no doubt about it. It's off the charts."

"我们很担心,"Kolb先生说。对于北京的空气污染,他补充道:"对它根本不用怀疑。它是史无前例的。"

A decade ago, Beijing introduced the Blue Sky program to measure sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM 10. Under the system, monitors take regular readings of each pollutant and then calculate a 24-hour average for each. The daily Blue Sky rating is determined by whichever pollutant has the highest 24-hour average.

十年前,北京开始统计蓝天天数,测量二氧化硫、二氧化氮含量和PM 10。测量方法是,有关人员定时读取每一种污染物的含量,然后计算一个24小时的平均数。24小时平均值最高的一种污染物的数量,决定了这一天是否是"蓝天"。

For China's authoritarian government, the system represented a breakthrough. But it is less stringent than air-quality indexes in the United States. Indeed, a day that rates "good" in Beijing would usually be rated polluted in the United States.

对于中国政府,这种测量方法代表了一个突破。但是,它不像美国使用的空气质量指数那样严格。通常,北京认定的"好"天,在美国会被认定为污染。

In 1998, Beijing recorded only 100 Blue Sky days. Each ensuing year, the city has improved the number until reaching the current 244 and pending. Cleaner coal has helped reduce sulfur dioxide by 25 percent since 2001. Nitrogen dioxide is also down. But Beijing's biggest problem is PM 10 and other particulates, which are attributed to construction, industry and cars.

1998年,北京只有100个蓝天。其后每年,这个数字都在增长。今年已经达到了244天。低硫煤使得空气中的二氧化硫比2001年下降了25%。二氧化氮也在下降。但是北京最大的问题是PM 10和其他一些微粒,它们是由建筑施工、工业生产和汽车造成的。

Average daily levels of PM 10 exceed national and W.H.O. standards. In 2004, the concentration of airborne particulates in Beijing equaled that of New York, Los Angeles, Washington, Chicago and Atlanta combined, according to the United States Embassy in Beijing. Earlier this year, a report by the United Nations Environment Program concluded that "air pollution is still the single largest environmental and public health issue affecting the city."

北京的PM 10的日平均值超过了全国平均水平和世界卫生组织的标准。根据北京的美国大使馆提供的数据,2004年,北京空气中的微粒,等于纽约、洛杉矶、华盛顿、芝加哥和亚特兰大的总和。今年早些时候,一份联合国环境项目的研究报告说,"空气污染是北京环境和影响公共健康的最大单个问题。"

"Particularly worrying are the levels of small particulate matter (PM 10) in the atmosphere, which is severely deleterious to public health," the report stated.

"尤其令人担忧的是空气中的微粒含量(PM 10),它对公众健康极其有害。"这份报告这样写道。

The Blue Sky system sets a maximum rating of 500, meaning that on the worst days the actual pollution level could be even higher. "Good" air in Beijing is any Blue Sky rating below 101. But even good air is often not very good; this year, Beijing has had 65 days that rated between 95 and 100. That bulge just inside the break point has attracted attention on Web sites and even at one foreign embassy, which compiled a statistical analysis casting doubt on the Blue Sky results, though the embassy's officials refuse to discuss the findings.

北京市衡量蓝天的最大值是500,代表了污染最严重的天气,实际的污染可能大于这个值。北京的"好"空气,就是数值低于101时的天气。但是,即使是"好"空气,实际上也不是那么好。今年,北京有65天的数值在95到100之间。临界点之下有这么大的异常密集区,在网上引发了很多关注,甚至美国大使馆自己做了一份统计分析,质疑北京的蓝天天数。不过,大使馆的官员不愿意讨论这件事。

Du Shaozhong, deputy director of Beijing's Environmental Protection Bureau, said the ratings were not manipulated. "People used to ask me if the ratings are scientific, or if we are playing any tricks," Mr. Du said. "But this is most advanced equipment in the world."

北京环保局的副局长杜少中说,蓝天数量没有受到人为操纵。"有人曾经问我,这个结果是否科学,或者我们是否改动了数据,"杜先生说。"实际情况是这是世界上最先进的仪器测出来的。"

Mr. Kolb said Olympic athletes were worried about ozone, which can inflame the respiratory tract and make it more difficult to breathe. But Beijing's monitoring system does not measure ozone, nor does it measure the finer particulates known as PM 2.5.

Kolb先生说,奥运会选手很担心臭氧,它对呼吸道有刺激作用,使人难于呼吸。但是,北京的监测指标不包括臭氧,也不测量更细小的微粒含量PM 2.5。

This year, a team of Chinese and American scientists analyzed air quality issues for the Olympics and found that Beijing's daily concentrations of PM 2.5 rated anywhere from 50 percent to 200 percent higher than American standards. Their study, published in the journal Atmospheric Environment, also found that ozone regularly exceeded levels deemed safe by American standards.

今年,一组中国和美国的科学家研究了奥运会的空气质量问题,发现北京的PM 2.5的日平均值比美国标准高出50%到200%。他们的研究结果,发表在大气环境的学术刊物上。该研究还发现,北京的臭氧含量也超过了美国认定的安全标准。

Studies are under way to assess the health impact of pollution in Beijing. One 2003 study warned that air pollution could be a major contributor to premature deaths related to chronic pulmonary disease, especially in the winter. Another study showed that visits to hospital emergency rooms rose on days with higher pollution levels.

还有一些研究正在评估北京的污染对人体健康的影响。一项2003年的研究发出警告,在由慢性肺病引发的死亡中,空气污染是主要原因,尤其是在冬天。另一项研究显示,医院急症人数的多少,与当天的污染程度有关。

On a recent afternoon at Beijing Hospital, Dr. Li Yi, a respiratory specialist, said he now saw 50 patients a day for respiratory problems compared with about half that a decade ago. He said asthma cases had increased sharply, as had the number of patients with nonsmoking-related lung cancer.

在近期的某一天下午,北京医院呼吸道专家李毅(音译)医生说,他现在每天治疗50个呼吸疾病患者,是十年前的一倍。他说,哮喘病人增加极快,不吸烟的肺癌患者也增加很快。

"You can't say that pollution is the only reason," Dr. Li said. "But nonsmoking-related lung cancer is now increasing more quickly."

"不能说污染是唯一的原因,"李医生说。"但是现在不吸烟的肺癌患者不断快速增加。"

Beyond the Olympics

奥运会结束后会怎样

In August, Beijing marked the one-year countdown to the Games with a celebration at Tiananmen Square and several test competitions at different sites. Jacques Rogge, president of the I.O.C., applauded Beijing's preparations, but also cautioned that pollution might force the postponement of some endurance sports.

今年8月,北京市在天安门举办庆祝仪式,标志奥运会一周年倒计时开始。好几项测试性的体育比赛在不同的场馆举行。国际奥委会主席罗格对北京的准备工作表示满意,但是也担心污染可能会迫使某些耐力项目推迟。

Hu Fei, director of the Institute of Atmosphere Physics in Beijing, said any concern was misplaced. "Don't worry about the Olympics," Mr. Hu said, expressing confidence that contingency plans would produce clean air for the Games. "We need to be concerned about the long term."

北京大气物理研究所所长胡飞(音译)说,人们的担心都放错了地方。"别管奥运会了,"胡先生说,他对政府的应对措施非常有信心,相信奥运会期间会有干净的空气。"我们要关注的是长期效果。"

Mr. Hu said finding a long-term fix is difficult because of Beijing's geography. Surrounded by mountains on three sides, Beijing depends on strong winds to disperse pollution. Yet winds also draw pollution into the city. The study in Atmospheric Environment estimated that as much as 60 percent of ozone detected at the National Stadium could be traced to outside provinces.

胡先生说,找到长期的解决办法很困难,由于北京的地理条件不好。北京三面环山,完全依靠外部的风驱散污染。但是有时候,风会把外面的污染吹进来。根据一项对大气环境的研究,在国家体育场测到的臭氧中,多达60%来源于外省。

"Beijing is a pollution source itself, and it is surrounded by other pollution sources," Mr. Hu said. "When you have wind, it brings in pollution from other sources. When you don't have wind, the local pollution cannot disperse."

"北京本身是一个污染源,然后又被其他污染源包围着,"胡先生说。"起风时,外部的污染就吹进来。要是不起风,本地的污染又无法驱散。"

Xu Jianping, 55, a business consultant, does not need to be told that Beijing is overrun with cars and construction. He is an avid in-line skater who enjoyed skating to work until pollution left him spitting out black phlegm. He went online and ordered a gas mask.

55岁的徐建平(音译)是一个咨询专家,他对北京的车辆和建筑物之多最有体会,因为他是一个轮滑爱好者,每天穿着轮滑鞋去上班。直到有一天,污染的空气使得他吐出了黑痰。于是,他上网订购了一套防毒面具。

"But I don't want to wear it," said Mr. Xu, fearing his mask would be misinterpreted as a protest against the Olympics. "It would hurt China's image."

"但是,我不会戴上它,"徐先生说,戴着这样的面具会被认为是对奥运会的抗议。"这可能会损害中国的形象。"

So until the Games are over, Mr. Xu is taking the bus to the office. He plans to vacation outside the city during the Games. Then, when life in Beijing returns to normal, he plans to resume skating to work -- with his mask, if necessary.

所以,在奥运会结束前,徐先生乘坐公共汽车去上班。奥运会期间,他计划到外地度假。然后,等到北京的生活回复正常,他再接着穿轮滑鞋去上班----戴着他的防毒面具,如果有必要的话。

(完)

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留言(16条)

谢谢阮先生,幸苦了。客观地去评价北京的污染,是非常必要的。可惜政府至今还在扮演着“皇帝的新衣”。

我真替那些边叫嚣着和/谐奥运的某些无耻官员们担心,担心中国的人权和环境状况会成为西方友人抵/制奥/运的天经地义的理由。
另外我更担心,担心我的担心不会成为现实

辛苦了。这样knowledge多过opinions的文,该让更多人了解。

北京2006年的PM 10指标是0.162毫克/立方米,比2005年上升了15%。

http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/qtsj/hjtjzl/hjtjsj2006/t20071210_402453023.htm

学习了,继续支持!

我寒假要去,是不是要带个口罩呀。

我在北京呆了三个月,总体感觉北京只能以一个“差”字形容:
环境差,服务差,道路差!其他的什么我不知道,至于人才我想正好相反了!在这样的环境却生活着全国最优秀的人,我为中国可卑,可以留下这些人生活在北京,在中国,实在太难了!

我在天津呆着,现在居然都习惯这里的空气了。

转载了
这样的文章只有到博主这来看
可惜我没有这个本事去翻译这些东西....hoho

有两处翻译值得商榷的地方

>He refused to identify himself because he was criticizing government policy.
>他拒绝透露身份,但是他批评了这种政策。

英文原文的意思应该是因为他批评了这种政策而不愿透露身份,前后是因果关系而不是转折


>That bulge just inside the break point has attracted attention on Web sites and even at one foreign embassy, which compiled a statistical analysis casting doubt on the Blue Sky results, though the embassy’s officials refuse to discuss the findings.
>临界点之下有这么大的异常密集区,在网上引发了很多关注,甚至美国大使馆自己做了一份统计分析,质疑北京的蓝天天数。不过,大使馆的官员不愿意讨论这件事。

英文原文只是提到了"one foreign embassy",“一个外国大使馆”,并没有指明是美国大使馆

  要治理一个有着十几亿人口的大国谈何容易,不能什么都用只有三亿人口的美国的标准衡量.美国人永远要求别人对环境做出保护,但是看看他们自己干了什么?如果平均分摊到每一个人身上,那我想每一个美国人对环境的破坏应该远胜于一个中国人对环境的破坏.去看看对美国环境的评估报告吧,那才叫触目惊心呢!
  如果博主住在北京,那么北京这几年空气质量的变化博主应该是可以看的到的,虽然不能天天晴空万里,但是作为一个内陆且紧靠内蒙风沙地带的城市来说,目前这样的状况已经很不错了(每年内蒙的风沙都会给北京带来严重的沙尘暴,今年有么?).
这篇文章不是别有用心就是作者无知.(图片一的注释:"2007年12月25日,由于空气质量恶劣,北京市政府发出警报,要求居民待在室内。但是人们已经习惯了呼吸脏空气,图为一个男子当天在天安门广场放风筝。" 为什么作者要指出12月25日,因为他想说明中国人即使过节也没有好天气,但是这只是他或者他们的思维方式,中国人其实不过圣诞节.)
其实如果博主读过以后真的有认真思考过的话就不应该把它发出来.说实话,影响不好,而且很容易对人造成误导.
如果你真的住在这个城市的话,请不要总是要求别人,请想想自己做过什么?

顶下三思,楼主,理性一点吧,感觉你的表现很愤青(如果你还觉得你是一个有良心的中国人的话)。请问如果是另一个西方国家的城市有这么多人口,同时举办一个重大国际性的活动,会得到你和可爱的Newyork Time如此的关注?一个发展中国家努力在保持经济稳定增长给人民带来切身利益的同时坚持可持续发展,尽量少破坏环境的进程中得到你们这种站着说话不腰疼的人的关注?
在美国学校食堂就餐,我经常能看到美国学生把只咬了一口的汉堡扔掉,在这里没有人在乎节约电水,更别说那大功率的SUV或者越野车在城市公路上疯狂的行进同时喷吐着CO2了。。。不想多说什么了,美国政府又做了多少?如果让他们有这样的人口基数的城市,按他们的生活模式,这个城市会是什么样子?中国正在努力从落后中走出来,进行历史上的伟大复兴,道路崎岖,前途光明。如屈原所说,路漫漫其修远,吾将上下而求索。复兴中华,吾辈己任!
PS:我就是一个地地道道的北京老爷们,在这个生我养我的土地上活了20多年,我爱她,在我完成了学业以后,我会用学到的知识想办法把她变得更好,而不是只会在一旁做一个旁观者说,看,她可真不怎么样!因为我知道,不论多少年,那里都是我的家,永远改不了,我的中国心!

大家对西方媒体对中国报道要持批判的态度。因为不管是BBC还是CNN,都特喜欢大肆炒作中国的负面新闻,仿佛在说“中国人民都生活在水深火热之中”。
北京的大街最起码还有行道绿化,街道宽敞,空气也能流通。相比之下,像Oxford等市中心,窄小的光秃巷子,两边高大建筑密闭,繁忙公交巨拍尾气。真不知道那样市中心地段的空气质量怎么达标。

罗马不是一天建成的。
环境再差都可以忍受,都可以治理好;
但是如何教育坏了…………
我们怎么办
借希望于别人,不如从身边的,从自己做起
一个人,一群人到13亿人
努力吧

那个什么三思啊..还有下面那个人..说你们点啥好呢??你们好像是很爱国.不让别人说自己国家不好..但说实在的.你们就是最大的害国.说北京空气不好就会让你们扣个不爱国的帽子.中国就是这样.不让人说真话啊.老百姓也都习惯了.中国啊.你什么时候才能好起来啊??什么时候人们才能都敢说真话啊.我真想中国好的方面什么都是世界第一啊.我是多么想啊.可惜了.这只能在幻想中....算了.不说这些了.人这一生不过短短几十年.何必这么认真......说点实在的吧.北京我也总去.总体来说空气就是一个字:脏.天空就是一个色:灰色.就是今年也是这个样子.怎么还不让别人说呢?不好就是不好.难到不好也要别人说好你们听着才舒服????这今天看的火炬传递.特别注意了天空.很遗憾.还是灰色的.跟本就看不到天空的本色.相信老外回去后也不会说什么好话的.你们还感觉良好呢啊??喝了点酒说点实话.应该不会被抓起来或是被扣上汉奸的帽子吧..呵呵~!

北京的天气现在可以说好了很多,比原来的清亮多了。

为什么总要拿人均什么的来说事?!
人均污染量?

在这里不是每一个人都在污染环境

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