经济权利法案

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2005年9月15日

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罗斯福总统在1941年的国情咨文中提出,人民必须拥有"四种自由"。

1944年,他进一步提出了为了实现这些自由,人民必须拥有经济权利,因为"没有经济上的独立和安全,就不存在真正的个人自由。穷人不是自由的人。"

他这样说道:

我们现在就有责任制定计划,以确定赢得持久和平的战略和建立比以前任何时候更高的美国生活水平。

我们清楚的意识到,没有经济上的独立和安全,就不存在真正的个人自由。穷人不是自由的人。饥饿和失业的人们是独裁统治孳生的土壤。

在当今社会,以下的经济信念是不言自明的,并且已经被广泛接受了。我们已经有了政治权利法案,现在又有了经济权利法案。这项法案可以为所有人----不分地域、种族或者信仰----提供一个新的安全和繁荣的基础。

这些权利包括:

  • 有在国内工厂、商店、农场或矿山从事有益的工作和获得报酬的权利;
  • 挣得足以提供充足衣食和娱乐得收入的权利;
  • 每一个农场主有生产和出售产品足以保障自己和家庭在生活上过得去的权利;
  • 每一个商人,不分大小,都有在自由的环境中从事贸易、不受国内外垄断集团不公正竞争和控制的权利;
  • 每一个家庭拥有体面住宅的权利;
  • 人民有获得充分医疗照顾和有机会获得并保持健康身体的权利;
  • 享受充分保障,不必在经济上担心老、病、事故和失业的权利;
  • 获得良好教育的权利。

所有这一切权利都意味着安全。而在这次战争打赢以后,我们必须准备在实现这些权利中,进而达到新的人类幸福和康乐的目标。

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It is our duty now to begin to lay the plans and determine the strategy. More than the winning of the war, it is time to begin plans and determine the strategy for (the) winning (of) a lasting peace and the establishment of an American standard of living higher than ever (before) known before.

This Republic had its beginning, and grew to its present strength, under the protection of certain inalienable political rights -- among them the right of free speech, free press, free worship, trial by jury, freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. They were our rights to life and liberty.

We have come to a clear realization of the fact, however, that true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. "Necessitous men are not free men." People who are hungry, people who are (and) out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.

In our day these economic truths have become accepted as self-evident. We have accepted, so to speak, a second Bill of Rights under which a new basis of security and prosperity can be established for all -- regardless of station, or race or creed.

Among these are:

The right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries, or shops or farms or mines of the nation;
The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation;
The right of (every) farmers to raise and sell their (his) products at a return which will give them (him) and their (his) families (family) a decent living;
The right of every business man, large and small , to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad;
The right of every family to a decent home;
The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health;
The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, and sickness, and accident and unemployment;
And finally, the right to a good education.

All of these rights spell security. And after this war is won we must be prepared to move forward, in the implementation of these rights, to new goals of human happiness and well-being.

----摘自《State of the Union Message to Congress(January 11, 1944)》

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