远东国际军事法庭判决书

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2007年11月 2日

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天,我非常震惊地发现,1946年《远东国际军事法庭判决书》(International Military Tribunal for the Far East Judgment)网上居然有英语全文,那可是1500页的文件啊。

我从不知道,这么重要的第二次世界大战的文件,网上居然可以轻易找到!国内媒体好像从来没有宣传过这件事。我查了国家图书馆的数据库,发现这个文件很可能没有出版过中译本。我不知道台湾是否出过中译本,当年南京政府应该有中文版的。

我对这个事情很不理解。

这是第一手的历史原件,历史价值就不用说了,对于爱国主义教育和揭露日本军国主义的罪行,都有巨大的价值。可是,为什么大家都不知道呢?这是公共领域的材料,没有版权,任何人都可以自由使用。可是,为什么最应该用的人却不用呢?我不知道,这是有意的还是无意的,反正两者都一样可悲。

尤其令人感慨的是,最后它们是由一个美国人放到网上,供全世界浏览。谢谢你,Patrick Clancey先生。

我初步看了一下,《判决书》的第五章《日本侵略中国》(Japanese Aggression Against China)和第八章《战争罪行》(Conventional War Crimes)与中国直接相关,我希望它们能够被全部翻译成中文。

下面是晚饭后我自己翻译的关于《南京大屠杀》的那一节,让我们看看原始材料是怎么说的。

当我翻译完的时候,我不由想到了一本书中的一句话:"历史的一页是用鲜血写成,它可以被翻过去,但是不能够被忘记。"

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The Rape of Nanking

南京大屠杀

原载《远东国际军事法庭判决书》1011-1019 页

阮一峰 译

As the Central China Expeditionary Force under command of MATSUI approached the city of Nanking in early December 1937, over one-half of its one million inhabitants and all but a few neutrals who remained behind to organize an International Safety Zone, fled from the city. the Chinese Army retreated, leaving approximately 50,000 troops behind to defend the city.

1937年12月初,根据松井石根的命令,日军"华中方面军"准备攻打南京。该城100万居民中,有一半以上的居民逃离。所有外国居民也撤出南京,只剩下一些中立国家的人士,他们组织了一个国际安全区。中国军队也撤退了,只留下大约5万人的部队进行防御。

As the Japanese forces stormed the South Gate on the night of 12 December 1937, most of the remaining 50,000 troops escaped through the North and West Gates of the city.

1937年12月12日夜,日军进攻南门。留守的5万中国军队中的大部分,都从北门和西门逃出了这个城市。

Nearly all the Chinese soldiers had evacuated the city or had abandoned their arms and uniforms and sought refuge in the International Safety Zone, and all resistance had ceased as the Japanese Army entered the city on the morning of 13 December 1937.

几乎所有的中国士兵都弃城而逃,或者丢弃了武器和军装,进入国际安全区去寻求庇护。1937年12月13日晨,日军进入南京的时候,一切抵抗活动都已经停止了。

The Japanese soldiers swarmed over the city and committed various atrocities. According to one of the eyewitnesses, they were let loose like a barbarian horde to desecrate the city. It was said by eyewitnesses that the city appeared to have fallen into the hands of the Japanese as captured prey, that it had not merely been taken in organized warfare, and that the members of the victorious Japanese Army had set upon the prize to committee unlimited violence.

日军士兵占领了这座城市,犯下各种暴行。根据一个目击者的证词,日军就像一个野蛮人的部落,毫无节制地四处掠夺。目击者说,南京就像落入日军之手的猎物,不仅经受了战火,还经受了日军士兵以取乐和收刮为目的犯下的无数罪行。

Individual soldiers and small groups of two of three roamed over the city murdering, raping, looting, and burning. there was no discipline whatever. Many soldiers were drunk. Solders went through the streets indiscriminately killing Chinese men, women and children without apparent provocation or excuse until in places the streets and alleys were littered with the bodies of their victims. According to another witness, Chinese were hunted like rabbits, everyone seen to move was shot. At least 12,000 non-combatant Chinese men, women and children met their deaths in these indiscriminate killings during the first two or three days of the Japanese occupation of the city.

单个的和二三人一组的日军士兵,在城市中出没,到处杀人、强奸、掠夺和焚烧,为所欲为。许多士兵都酩酊大醉。他们在大街上见到中国人就杀,不管是男人、女人或儿童,不需要任何理由和借口。有几条大街和弄堂,遍地都是中国人的尸体。根据另一个目击者的证词,中国人像野兔一样被日军当作猎物射击。只要看见有活动的中国人,他就会被打死。在日军占领南京后的头两三天中,至少有12000名非武装人员的中国男性、女性和儿童,死于日军的屠杀中。

There were many cases of rape. Death was a frequently penalty for the slightest resistance on the part of a civtion [sic] or the members of her family who sought to protect her. Even girls of tender years and old women were raped in large numbers throughout the city, and many cases of abnormal and sadistic behaviour in connection with these rapings occurred. Many women were killed after the act and their bodies mutilated. Approximately 20,000 cases of rape occurred within the city during the first month of the occupation.

同时,还发生了许多起强奸。中国女性或者试图保护她的家人,只要稍有反抗,就立刻会被杀死。甚至城中大量未成年的女孩和老年妇女,都被强奸。在强奸过程中,还发生了许多起变态和虐待行为。许多妇女在强奸后被杀,她们的尸体被烧毁。在占领后的第一个月中,大约共发生了20000起强奸。

Japanese soldiers took from the people everything they desired. Soldiers were observed to stop unarmed civilians on the road, search them, and finding nothing of value then to shoot them. Very many residential and commercial properties were entered and looted. Looted stocks were carried away in trucks. After looting shops and warehouses, the Japanese soldiers frequently set fire to them.

日军士兵从南京居民手中,夺走任何他们看中的东西。有人看到,日军士兵在路上拦住手无寸铁的平民,进行搜身,如果没发现有价值的东西,日军就会杀死他们。大量的民居和商业用房,都被日军闯入,洗劫一空。抢来的物品装在卡车上运走。在抢劫完毕之后,日军经常会纵火,将房屋付之一炬。

Taiping Road, the most important shopping street, and block after block of the commercial section of the city were destroyed by fire. Soldiers burned the homes of civilians for no apparent reason. Such burning appeared to follow a prescribed pattern after a few days and continued for six weeks. Approximately one-third of the city was thus destroyed.

南京最重要的商业街太平路,以及其他的商业区,都被焚毁。日军士兵还无故烧毁平民的住宅。这些纵火行为看上去是奉命行事,持续了6个星期。三分之一的南京因此变成废墟。

Organized and wholesale murder of male civilians was conducted with the apparent sanction of the commanders on the pretense that Chinese soldiers had removed their uniforms and were mingling with the population. Groups of Chinese civilians were formed, bound with their hands behind their backs, and marched outside the walls of the city where they were killed in groups by machine gun fire and with bayonets. More than 20,000 Chinese men of military age are known to have died in this fashion.

大批男性南京市民,被有组织的和大规模的杀害,这是日军司令部的指令,借口他们是脱下军装、混入平民的中国士兵。中国平民被分成一组一组,双手绑在背后,押送到城墙边,然后被机关枪和刺刀成批杀害。大约有20000名处在服役年龄的中国男性死于这种方式。

The German Government was informed by its representative about "atrocities and criminal acts not of an individual but of an entire Army, namely, the Japanese," which Army, later in the Report, was qualified as a "bestial machinery."

德国驻中国大使在向德国政府递交的报告中,写道:"暴行和犯罪行为并非单个士兵所为,而是整支军队都参与其中,也就是说,是所有的日本人。"这支军队在后文中被形容为是一部"兽行机器"。

Those outside the city fared little better than those within. Practically the same situation existed in all the communities within 200 li (about 66 miles) of Nanking. The population had fled into the country-side in an attempt to escape from the Japanese soldiers. In places they had grouped themselves into fugitive camps. The Japanese captured many of these camps and visited upon the fugitives treatment similar to that accorded the inhabitants of Nanking.

南京城外中国人的遭遇,跟城里的一样悲惨。实际上,这种状况在南京周围200里(约66英里)的范围内都存在。城里居民涌向农村,试图躲开日军,有几处自发形成了难民营。日军搜索到了这些难民营,将难民同城里的居民一样对待。

Of the civilians who had fled Nanking, over 57,000 were overtaken and interned. These were starved and tortured in captivity until a large number died. Many of the survivors were killed by machine gun fire and by bayoneting.

在那些逃出南京的平民中,大约有57000人被追上和拘押。这些人中的大部分,最后因为无法忍受饥饿和折磨而死亡。那些侥幸挺过来的人,则会被用机枪和刺刀杀害。

Large parties of Chinese soldiers laid down their arms and surrendered outside Nanking; within 72 hours after their surrender, they were killed in groups by machine gun fire along the bank of the Yangtze River.

大批的中国士兵放下武器,在南京城外投降。在投降的72小时以后,他们被用机关枪在长江边集体杀害。

Over 30,000 such prisoners of war were so killed. There was not even a pretence of trial of these prisoners so massacred.

大约有30000名战俘这样被杀。甚至都没有进行形式上的审判,大屠杀就开始了。

Estimates made at a later date indicate that the total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanking and its vicinity during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation was over 200,000. That these estimates are not exaggerated is borne out by the fact that burial societies and other organizations counted more than 155,000 bodies which they buried. They also reported that most of those were bound with their hands tied behind their backs. These figures do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning, or by throwing them into the Yangtze River, or otherwise disposed of by Japanese.

根据事后的估计,在日军占领南京后的六周内,在南京及其附近地区,被杀害的平民和战俘总数大约有20万人。这个数字并非出于夸张的想象,而是来自于殡葬行业和其他一些掩埋尸体的组织提供的事实。他们一共埋葬了超过了15.5万具尸体。他们还报告说,大多数尸体的双手都被绑在背后。这个数字还没有包括那些被烧毁的尸体、被投入长江的尸体,以及其他日军自己处置的尸体。

Japanese Embassy officials entered the city of Nanking with the advance elements of the Army; and on 14 December, an official of the Embassy informed the International Committee for the Nanking Safety ¸one that the "Army was determined to make it bad for Nanking, but that Embassy officials were going to try to moderate the action." The Embassy officials also informed the members of the Committee that at the time of the occupation of the city, no more than 17 military policemen were provided by the Army commanders to maintain order within the city. When it transpired that complaints to the Army officials did not have any result, those Japanese embassy officials suggested to the foreign missionaries that the latter should try and get publicity in Japan, so that the Japanese Government would be forced by public opinion to curb the Army.

12月14日,日本驻中国大使馆的官员跟随军队进入南京。一个大使馆的官员,对国际安全区的外国人说:"陆军决心惩罚南京,但是大使馆正在设法缓和事态。"这个官员还说,在占领期间,日军会提供最多17名军事警察来维持城市秩序。稍后,国际安全区的外国居民发现,对日军提出的抗议根本不起作用,日本大使馆的官员又建议这些外国人,直接向日本的媒体进行曝光,这样日本政府会被迫根据舆论遏制军队的行为。

Dr. Bates testified that the terror was intense for two and one-half to three weeks, and was serious six to seven weeks following the fall of the city.

Bates博士作证,在南京攻陷后的二至三周内,恐怖行为极其严重,在六至七周内非常严重。

Smythe, the Secretary of the Int. Committee for the Safety Zone, filed two protests a day for the first six weeks.

国际安全区的秘书长Smythe,在头六个星期中,每天都会提出两份抗议书。

MATSUI, who had remained in a rear area until 17 December, made a triumphal entry into the city on that day, and on 18 December held a religious service for the dead, after which he issued a statement in the course of which he said: "I extend much sympathy to millions of innocent people in the Kiangpei and Chekiang districts, who suffered the evils of war. Now the flag of the rising sun is floating high over Nanking, and the Imperial Way is shining in the southern parts of the Yangtze-Kiang. The dawn of the renaissance of the East is on the verge of offering itself. On this occasion, I hope for reconsideration of the situation by the 400 million people of China." MATSUI remained in the city for nearly a week.

松井石根一直留在后方,直到12月17日才以胜利者的姿态进入南京。12月18日,他主持了一个悼念死者的宗教仪式。随后,他发表了一个声明,他在其中说到:"我对江北和江浙一带的几百万无辜人民,表示极大的同情,他们是战争恶魔的受害者。现在,太阳旗已经飘扬在南京上方,天皇的光辉照耀在长江以南。东亚复兴的黎明即将来到。在此,我希望4亿中国人民对形势能够重新认识。"他在南京停留了将近一个星期。

MUTO, then a colonel, had joined MATSUI's staff on 10 November 1937, and was with MATSUI during the drive on Nanking and participated in the triumphal entry and occupation of the city. Both he and MATSUI admit that they heard of the atrocities being committed in the city during their stay at rear headquarters after the fall of the city. MATSUI admits that he heard that foreign governments were protesting against the commission of these atrocities. No effective action was taken to remedy the situation. Evidence was given before the Tribunal by an eye witness, that while MATSUI was in Nanking on the 19th of December, the business section of the city was in flames. On that day, the witness counted fourteen fires in the principal business street zone. After the entry of MATSUI and MUTO into the city, the situation did not improve for weeks.

日军上校武藤章在1937年11月10月,加入松井石根的幕僚,稍后跟随松井一起进入南京。他们两人都承认,在南京攻陷后,他们在后方司令部,都听说了城中发生的暴行。松井承认,他知道外国政府对这些暴行的抗议。但是,没有采取有效行动去缓和形势。根据目击证人提供的证据,12月19日松井在南京时,城市的商业区正是火光熊熊。当天,目击者一共报告了主要商业区中发生的14起火灾。松井和武藤进入南京后,形势连续几个星期没有任何好转。

Members of the Diplomatic Corps and Press and the Japanese Embassy in Nanking sent out reports detailing the atrocities being committed in and around Nanking. The Japanese Minister-at-Large to China, Ito, Nobofumi, was in Shanghai from September 1937 to February 1938. He received reports from the Japanese Embassy in Nanking and from members of the Diplomatic Corps and Press regarding the conduct of the Japanese troops and sent a resume of the reports to the Japanese Foreign Minister, HIROTA. These reports, as well as many others giving information of the atrocities committed at Nanking, which were forwarded by members of the Japanese diplomatic officials in China, were forwarded by HIROTA to the War Ministry of which UMEZU was Vice-Minister. They were discussed at Liaison Conferences, which were normally attended by the Prime Minister, War and Navy Ministers, Foreign Minister HIROTA, Finance Minister KAYA, and the Chiefs of the Army and Navy General Staffs.

外国外交官和新闻记者,以及在南京的日本大使馆人员,送出了许多报告,详细描述了南京及其周边地区发生的暴行。日本内阁部长Nobofumi Ito从1937年9月到1938年2月在上海。他收到了这些关于日军行为的报告,并向外交大臣广田弘毅发出了一份概要。这些报告,以及其他由日本驻中国的外交官收集的关于日军在南京罪行的信息,都由广田弘毅送到了梅津美治郎任副大臣的战争部。它们在内阁会议上得到了讨论,首相、战争大臣和海军大臣、外交大臣、财政大臣、陆军和海军的总司令都应该参加了这个会议。

News reports of the atrocities were widespread. MInAMI, who was serving as Governor-General of Korea at the time, admits that he read these reports in the Press. Following these unfavorable reports and the pressure of public opinion aroused in nations all over the world, the Japanese GOvernment recalled MATSUI and approximately 80 of his officers, but took no action to punish any of them. MATSUI, after his return to Japan on 5 March 1938, was appointed a Cabinet Councillor and 0n 29 April 1940, was decorated by the Japanese Government for "meritorious services" in the China War. MATSUI, in explaining his recall, says that he was not replaced by HATA because of the atrocities committed by his troops at Nanking, but because he considered his work ended at Nanking and wished to retire from the Army. He was never punished.

关于南京的新闻报告被广泛传播。当时担任朝鲜总督的MInAMI,承认他从报纸上读到过这些报道。由于这些不利的报道,以及国际社会中公众舆论的压力,日本政府召回了松井石根,以及大约80个他的部下,但是对他们没有采取任何惩罚措施。1938年3月5日,松井回到了日本。1940年4月29日,被任命为内阁成员,日本政府称赞他在对华战争中"战功卓著"。松井自己解释他被召回的原因,并非因为他的部队在南京犯下的罪行,而是因为他考虑在南京的工作已经结束了,他自己希望从陆军退休。他从没有因此受到过惩罚。

The barbarous behaviour of the Japanese Army cannot be excused as the acts of a soldiery which had temporarily gotten out of hand when at last a stubbornly defended position had capitulated -- rape, arson and murder continued to be committed on a large scale for at least six weeks after the city had been taken and for at least four weeks after MATSUI and MUTO had entered the city.

日军的野兽行为不能被掩饰成,在遭到顽强抵抗后,军人暂时失去控制的行为。因为,在南京被占领后,大量的强奸、纵火和杀戮,持续了至少六周,其中有四周是在松井石根和武藤章进入南京后。

The new Japanese garrison Commander at Nanking, General Amaya, on 5 February 1938, at the Japanese Embassy in Nanking, made a statement to the Foreign diplomatic corps criticizing the attitude of the foreigners who had been sending abroad reports of Japanese atrocities at Nanking and upbraiding them for encouraging anti-Japanese feeling. This statement by Amaya reflected the attitude of the Japanese Military toward foreigners in China, who were hostile to the Japanese policy of waging an unrestrained punitive war against the people of China.

1938年2月5日,新任的卫戍司令Amaya将军进入南京,他在南京的日本大使馆向各国外交使团发表演说,批评了那些向国外发出日军罪行报告的外交官,谴责他们这样做会助长反日情绪。Amaya的演说反映了日军对在华外国人的态度。外国人士普遍对日本针对中国人的毫无限制的、惩罚性的战争怀有敌意。

(完)

留言(15条)

这样的史料,所有人都应该铭记在心。不是记住仇恨,而是记住教训;也不仅是中国方面的教训,弱小易被欺凌、要有抵抗到底的血性云云,也有日本方面的教训:造就了一批失去人性的士兵。人类作为一个物种都应该为这样的暴行反思。

无法表达对博主的赞叹。为大部分中国人的麻木、无知和愚顺和政府的不作为感到绝望。
真正的懊悔不是对行为的懊悔而是对动机的懊悔。这句话不仅作用于日本人,也适用于中国人。
再次表示支持你!

大部分中国人不是麻木、不是无知和不是愚顺, 主要是为了养家糊口. 如果还是大锅饭, 大部分中国人仍是很踊跃地. 可惜时代变了, 中共不再是老毛的中共. 大部分中国人不得不麻木、不得不无知和不得不愚顺, 什么是主要的? 什么是次要的? 生存是主要的, 吃饭是主要的, 其它的是次要的. 老实说, 中共在里面扮演了不光彩地角色, 它没有真正当好这个老板, 倒象是混混.

怎么说好呢,
哎……
顶!

wilson,
老毛怎么了?老毛多次表示,要感谢日本人,有了日本人,和谐派对才能夺取中国政权。
还有一个同样被刻意和谐的事实,抗日主力乃是国军,不知道这份判决书上对这点是否有所体现。

引用wilson的发言:

大部分中国人不是麻木、不是无知和不是愚顺, 主要是为了养家糊口. 如果还是大锅饭, 大部分中国人仍是很踊跃地. 可惜时代变了, 中共不再是老毛的中共. 大部分中国人不得不麻木、不得不无知和不得不愚顺, 什么是主要的? 什么是次要的? 生存是主要的, 吃饭是主要的, 其它的是次要的. 老实说, 中共在里面扮演了不光彩地角色, 它没有真正当好这个老板, 倒象是混混.

其实我这里说的无知,是我想前几个月上映电影《东京审判》后关于这部电影的激烈讨论。我想包括导演在内的绝大多数人没有看过这份客观、记录性的英文资料。Communist Party想看到的是愚顺的人民,在这样的环境中,绝大多数普通人不可避免的会相对无知,正是因为无可奈何的无知,人们才会麻木和愚顺。

重大发现,呵呵

我也报道一下:http://cpblawg.net/?p=376
怎么没找到这里的trackback地址?

引用曹鹏的发言:
怎么没找到这里的trackback地址?

spam太多,只好关了trackback。

thank you very much

张纯如——美籍华人,她的书原版用英文写就,而且书后的资料出处非常详细,因该包括这个这么重要的文件,她的书我看过,她不懂中文,来中国需要翻译,肯定很多资料是直接来源于英文资料,99%的可能性包括这份判决书。

早就有翻译了(上世纪50年代). 你可以去孔夫子旧书网上检索一下.

http://www.jschina.com.cn/gb/jschina/2004/node19187/node31784/node31789/node31816/userobject1ai1704688.html

历史不容篡改――访法学家、原远东国际军事法庭助理检察官裘劭恒

  一本五十年代初期出版的《远东国际军事法庭判决书》,放在著名法学家裘劭恒教授的案头。......

  在谈到1937年12月日军制造的惨绝人寰的南京大屠杀时,裘劭恒说,南京大屠杀是日本军国主义遗臭万年的罪行。在长达六周的大屠杀中,日军凶狠残暴、无恶不作,我国军民被集体枪杀和活埋的就多达20万人以上。说到这里,裘劭恒教授言语梗塞,潸然泪下。
  .......

  裘劭恒教授说:“日本侵略军奸淫掳掠和残杀南京人民的罪行,在远东国际军事法庭判决书上都有记载,日本文部省掩盖不了。”他翻开判决书,指着《南京大屠杀》一章说:“这就是事实,这就是历史,这是任何人也篡改不了的!”
  判决书上面记载着日本侵略军的暴行:
  “据目睹者之一说:日本兵完全象一群被放纵的野蛮人似地来污辱这个城市……日军单独的或者以二三人为一个小集团在全市游荡,实行杀人、强奸、抢劫、放火。”
  “日军在街上漫步,不分青红皂白的屠杀中国人的男女和小孩,终至在大街小巷都横陈着被害者的尸体。”
  “中国平民被集成一群一群的,反绑着手,押运到城外,用机关枪和刺刀集体的被屠杀。”
  “强奸的事件很多……许多妇女在强奸后被杀,还将她们的躯体加以斩断。在占领的一个月中,在南京市内发生了二万左右的强奸事件。”
  “日本兵向老百姓抢劫他们所想要的任何东西……在日本兵抢劫了店铺和仓库以后,经常是放一把火烧掉它。最重要的商店街太平路被火烧掉,并且市内的商业区一块一块的、一个接一个的被烧掉……全市约三分之一都被毁了。”
  “德国政府从它的代表者得到报告说:‘这不是个人的而是整个陆军、即日军本身的残暴和犯罪行为。’在这个报告的后段中,曾形容‘日军’就是‘兽类的集团’。”
  “据巴兹博士作证说:南京失陷后在两礼拜半到三礼拜的期间恐怖达于极点,从第六礼拜到第七礼拜的期间恐怖是严重的。” 
  “据国际安全地区委员会干事斯麦士说:在最初的六个礼拜中,曾每天提出两次抗议。”
  ……  

(《人民日报》1982.08.08 第4版)

不知道楼主是怎么在图书馆查书的,《远东国际军事法庭判决书》出过中译版,国内各大图书馆都有馆藏,可以借阅。

《远东国际军事法庭判决书》1986年群众出版社出版,张效林翻译。

楼主:请问是否有一本:牛津 2008年 尼尔·博尔斯提尔特等的《东京国际法庭》一书

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