Such的用法

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2008年8月10日

珠峰培训

好久没有做英语学习笔记了。

前几天,我突然想整理一下such这个词的用法。虽然它看上去很简单,但是有许多种不同的用法,很容易混淆。

such可以分为三种不同的词性。

一、 形容词的用法

1.

such做形容词,是最常见、也是最简单的用法,起到一种强调作用。

She's got such talent. 她很有天赋。
We're having such a wonderful time. 我们过得很愉快。
I've had such a shock.我大吃一惊。
Why are you in such a hurry? 为什么你这么匆忙?

2.

注意上面的第二个例子,"such a wonderful time"。

通常情况下,如果such与名词之间还带有形容词,这时不提倡使用such,因为会引起歧义。而要说"so wonderful a time"或者"a time so wonderful"。

3.

当句子末尾加上that引导从句,形成such...that结构时,表示因为前面提到的原因,引起了某种结果。

He speaks to me in such a way that I always feel he is insulting me. 他总是用那种方式跟我说话,总是使得我觉得受到了侮辱。
It was such a boring speech (that) I fell asleep. 这是个乏味的演说,使得我睡着了。

二、限定词的用法

4.

所谓“限定词”,指的是对名词的涵义加以限制的词。又分为后对应限定和前对应限定两种。

5.

前对应限定的such,指的是前面提到过的某一种类。

He noticed her necklace. Such jewels must have cost thousands, he thought. 他注意到了她的项链。这一定值几千元,他想。
This isn't the only story of crulty to children. Many such cases are reported every day. 这并非虐待儿童的唯一事件。每天都有许多类似案例被报道。

6.

后对应限定的such,指的是后面将要提到的某一种类。通常使用such ... as/that ...的结构。

Such a disaster as this had never happened to her before.以前她从未遇到过这样的灾难。
The knot was fastened in such a way that it was impossible to undo. 这个结打得很牢固,根本解不开。
Such advice as he was given proved almost worthless.他得到的那些建议,被证明毫无价值。
He's not such a fool as he looks. 他并非看上去那样蠢。

注意,规范的用法是,这时应避免使用such...that,而只使用such...as,方便与前面的第3点相区分。

三、代词的用法

7.

such做代词的时候,也分为前指代和后指代两种。

8.

前指代的意思是,指代前面提到过的某个人或某件事。通常,这时指代的是前面整句话的涵义。

Cricket was boring. Such was her opinion befor meeting Ian. 板球很乏味。遇到Ian之前,她一直这么认为。
She's a competent manager and has always been regarder as such by her colleagues. 她是一个能干的经理。同事们一直这样看待她。

9.

后指代的意思是,指代后面提到的某个人或某件事。这时通常采用such as to do sth或such that的结构。

Such is the influence of TV that it can make a person famous overnight.这就是电视的影响,它可以使人一夜成名。
The pain in her foot wasn't such as to stop her walking. 她脚上的痛,还没有到妨碍走路的地步。
The damage was such that it would cost too much to repair. 损害很严重,要用很多钱才能修好。

四、词组 such as 和 as such

10.

such as可以连在一起,作为词组使用,意思是“比如、就像”,同like类似。

Wild flowers such as orchids and primroses are becoming rare. 像兰花和樱草花那样的野花,越来越少见了。
Large and important projects such as this one often take years to develop. 类似这一个的大型重要项目,需要好多年才能发展起来。

11.

词组as such通常用在词尾,其实只是代词用法的一个引申,或者表示“像看上去那样”。

If this is not genuine champagne, it should not be labelled as such. 既然这不是真的香槟酒,就不应该这样标识。
The new job is not promotion as such but it has good prospects. 新工作并非真的升职,不过前景不错。

五、莎士比亚著作中的such例句

12.

such是一个很老的词,莎士比亚就经常用。下面是一些从他著作中选出的例句。

Good night, good night! parting is such sweet sorrow,

Romeo and Juliet: II, ii

良宵,良宵!此时分别真是甜蜜又悲伤。

《罗密欧与朱丽叶》第二幕,第二场

We are such stuff as dreams are made on, and our little life is rounded with a sleep.

The Tempest: IV, iv

构成我们的料子也就是那梦幻的料子,我们短暂的一生,前后都环绕在酣睡之中。

《暴风雨》第四幕,第四场

Alas, our frailty is the cause, not we: For such as we are made of, such we be.

The Twelfth Night

唉,原因在于我们的弱点,而非我们:因为我们由什么材料制成,就会成为什么样子。

《第十二夜》

I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, than such a Roman.

Julius Caesar: IV, iii

我宁愿做一只向月亮狂吠的狗,也不愿做这样一个罗马人。

《尤利乌斯·恺撒》第四幕,第三场

Teach not thy lip such scorn, for it was made For kissing, lady, not for such contempt.

KING RICHARD III: I, ii

何必如此出言讥讽,夫人,天生你可亲吻的香唇,不是给你做侮蔑之用的。

《理查三世》第一幕,第三场

We were, fair queen, Two lads that thought there was no more behind. But such a day to-morrow as to-day. And to be boy eternal.

The Winter's Tale: I, ii

我们那时是两个不知道有将来的孩子,以为明天就跟今天一样,永远是个孩子。

《明天的故事》第一幕,第二场

(完)

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留言(10条)

such 比较特殊的就是他的指代和限定词用法

关键它可以指代一个句子 蛮特殊的

such a wonderful time
哪有歧义了???

很实用啊,又复习了一遍
看到莎翁的例句,文字掷地有声啊

引用zhengprince的发言:

such a wonderful time
哪有歧义了???

因为不确定强调的是名词time,还是形容词wonderful。

我也不明白such a wonderful time歧义处,such在本质上不就是形容词吗?怎么会有"不确定强调的是名词time,还是形容词wonderful"?
望博主指教。

She's a competent manager and has always been regarder as such by her colleagues. 她是一个能干的经理。同事们一直这样看待她。
regarder 是甚麼意思?

引用逍遙兄的发言:

She's a competent manager and has always been regarder as such by her colleagues. 她是一个能干的经理。同事们一直这样看待她。
regarder 是甚麼意思?

明显是 regarded

so wonderful a time is感觉才是很冗长的表达法,such a wonderful time 没有歧义哇

引用Ruan YiFeng的发言:

因为不确定强调的是名词time,还是形容词wonderful。


such 只可是形容词或名词,这里的 such 当然是给后面的名词用的,但一般也不说 so wonderful a time, 表达是有习惯的,多用哪个谷歌一下便知,
PS: 阮哥英语分析得这么厉害,开个纯学英语的博客也不错。

引用Ruan YiFeng的发言:

因为不确定强调的是名词time,还是形容词wonderful。



说错了,形容词或代词,而如 as such, such 当然是做代词了。 as 在这里为介词,意为 "像"。

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